Automation is the use of technology to perform tasks or processes with minimal human intervention. It has become an increasingly important aspect of modern life, with automation being used in various fields such as manufacturing, healthcare, finance, and many others. Automation can be broadly categorized into four types: fixed, programmable, flexible, and intelligent.


Fixed Automation:

Fixed automation, also known as hard automation, is the most basic and simplest type of automation. In this type of automation, the equipment or machinery is designed to perform a specific task or a sequence of tasks repeatedly. The machines used in fixed automation are designed to produce large quantities of the same product or perform the same task with high speed and accuracy. These machines are also highly specialized and cannot be reprogrammed or reconfigured to perform other tasks. Fixed automation is best suited for tasks that require high-volume production and have a consistent demand. Examples of fixed automation include assembly lines, conveyors, and specialized manufacturing equipment.

Programmable Automation:

Programmable automation, also known as soft automation, is a more versatile form of automation than fixed automation. In this type of automation, the machinery or equipment is designed to be easily reprogrammed or reconfigured to perform a variety of tasks. Programmable automation uses computer control systems to enable the machines to perform different operations. These systems are usually based on numerical control, and the programs can be easily updated or modified. Programmable automation is suitable for tasks that require flexibility and versatility, as well as tasks with varying levels of complexity. Examples of programmable automation include industrial robots, CNC machines, and automated guided vehicles.

Flexible Automation:

Flexible automation is an advanced type of automation that combines the advantages of both fixed and programmable automation. It is designed to be adaptable and capable of performing a range of tasks with minimal setup time. The equipment used in flexible automation is designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate different production runs. Flexible automation relies on advanced control systems and programming languages to provide the flexibility and versatility needed to handle various tasks. This type of automation is best suited for manufacturing operations that require a high degree of customization and production runs with varying quantities. Examples of flexible automation include modular assembly systems and automated inspection systems.

Intelligent Automation:

Intelligent automation is the most advanced type of automation, which combines the capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation to perform complex tasks that require a high level of decision-making and problem-solving skills. This type of automation relies on advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques to enable machines to learn from experience and improve their performance over time. Intelligent automation is ideal for tasks that involve unstructured data, decision-making, and complex reasoning. Examples of intelligent automation include chatbots, virtual assistants, and self-driving cars.


The four types of automation – fixed, programmable, flexible, and intelligent – have varying degrees of complexity and capability. Each type of automation has its own advantages and limitations, and their suitability depends on the specific requirements of the task or process being automated. Companies must assess their needs and goals to determine the appropriate type of automation to implement. By leveraging automation, companies can increase productivity, reduce costs, and improve efficiency while minimizing the risk of errors and increasing quality control.